New social movement refers to the movement that occurs after 1960, such as the women’s movement, the peace movement, the ecological movement, etc.
New social movements are the product of post Industrial society, which focuses mainly on human rights. The key figures associated with the new social movement are Jurgan Habermas, Alain Touraine, Offe, Alberto Melucci etc.
The subject of the new social movement:
New social movement includes the following subject:
- Human rights
- Peace and disarmament
- Role of women
- Basic needs of education
- Health etc
Basic features of the new social movement:
- The new social movement is not generally class-based but it is based on diffuse social status such as gender, sexual orientations or profession.
- The new social movement is characterized by the pluralism of values and ideas rather than a clear cut ideological position.
- In the New social movement, the distinction between collectivity and the individual is Blurred.
- The new social movement is concerned with non-income issues such as LGBT rights, sexual behavior, abortion, opposition to smoking, etc.
- The new social movement reflects skepticism towards conventional channels for democratic participation.
- New social movement tends to be very diverse, segment and decentralized.
- Political transformation is one of the goals of new social movement but along with it it also talks about individual Choices.
Agent of new social movement
The new social movement has a strong base and active participation of members which reflect peoples discontent towards the traditional political institutions and search for alternative institutions.
New politics with new social movement
The new social movement adopts new politics by using a new means and method to show dissatisfaction. From the 1990s onward new social movements have been using the internet to increase the speed, reach, and scale of effectiveness of social movement and also to mobilize its members.
It establishes a horizontal organizational structure for participation. It does not believe in a rigid hierarchy, hence the concept of leader and lead does not exist there. The prominent members of the new social movements prefer to call themselves an organizer rather than a leader.
The new rule of the new social movement:
The moral vision of new social movements is significant. It is a vehicle for cumulative change in the socio-economic and political fields. In the social field, the new social movement is able to generate consciousness among socially deprived sections.
In the economic field, new social movements cwt initiate alternative development strategies to involve common people in developmental projects.
Difference between New social movement and old social movement:
- The old social movement is the product of Industrial society but a new Social moment is the product of post Industrial society.
- The old social movement was class-based. It involves some identifiable class such as working-class, peasantry class, etc. Each class tries to secure their economic security and advancement but a new social movement is not class-based. It is based on diffuse social statuses such as gender, sexual orientations, or profession.
- Old social movement and new social Movement differs in its social base. Working-class was the main social base of old social movement but the social base of new social movement is known as the new class who has a high level of education and more access to information and resources.
- Old social movement subscribes to Marxist theory that society is divided into class lines and classes are antagonistic. But new social movement primary ethnic, Nationalist and plural.
- Unlike the old social movement, a new social movement does not revolve around economic issues. It is concerned with the self-identity, autonomy, and mortality of individuals and groups. LGBT movements, environmental movements, tribal movements fall in this category because these movements seek autonomy and dignity.
- New social movement, unlike old social movement, is considered as Grass root or micro-movement and it does not seek to capture the state power. It aims at addressing the interest of marginalized or excluded groups.
- The new social movement is locally based focusing on small social groups but the old social movement is not locally based and it is a single issue centered.
- The new special moment does not require strong ideology to achieve its objective but ideologies like Marxism, socialism played a very important role in old social movements.