Full Explanation of John Rawls Theory Of Justice | Justice as Fairness | Principles of Justice | Veil Of Ignorance | Original Position | Difference Principle | 2019

In his book  "A Theory of Justice" John Rawls gives a hypothesis of justice, which depends on two standards. Rawls starts with the explanation that "justice is the first virtue of social institution", implying that a decent society is the one, which is organized by the rule of equity. He builds up his hypothesis of social justice dependent on the thought of implicit understanding among theoretical people to make a perfect society


Rawls starts his hypothesis by expecting a theoretical circumstance of primordial uniformity between sensible people, which is known as "original position". In original position everybody choose the standards of justice from behind a "veil of ignorance". As per Rawls, behind this veil of ignorance all people are indicated as rational, free, and ethically equivalent creatures. They know nothing of themselves, their regular capacities, or their set position in the general public. They have no clue about their race, sex, religion and so on.

The veil is the one that basically ties individuals together with the goal that nobody can structure the standards in their own support. As per Rawls in original position, individuals would pick two basic standards in doling out the appropriation of merchandise in the public arena. 

john rawls theory of justice

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Principles of Justice: 


According to Rawls the primary principle of justice is known as "equal liberty principle". It expresses that every individual has an equivalent appropriate to the most essential freedom. This principle ensures essential political freedoms, for example, the freedom of thought, freedom of religion, right to hold individual property and so on. 

The second key principle has two sections. The initial segment of the second principle is known as " fair equality of opportunity principles, which expresses that there ought to be a balance of chance, with the goal that individuals are not kept from achieving advanced education and position dependent on discretionary social possibilities, for example, class and social position. Everybody ought to have equivalent and same chance to make riches, work and administer in open office. 



The subsequent part of the second principle is known as “difference principle”. The difference principle governs the distribution of goods, income and wealth, position, responsibilities, power etc. It holds that inequalities in the distribution of these goods are just, only if it benefits the least well off position of the society. In other word any economic and social inequalities that is permitted in society, should only be permitted if it maximizes the benefit of least advantage of society. As per the difference principle, it is just for say a doctor to earn higher salaries as s/he would be providing services to everyone, which will benefit the least advantage member of the society as well.


Rawls contention for the difference principle is based on the premises that, citizens have as their highest interest two moral powers.


  1. The primary power is the capacity to follow up on the standards of Justice. 
  2. The subsequent power is the capacity to hold, change and pursue an origination of products. 


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